How did ancient Mediterranean farmers practice dry farming?

In an effort to preserve soil moisture and prevent evaporation, the farmer surface-plowed his land at least three times a year. In the clay terrain of Tuscany, it was cultivated up to nine times annually. The farmer did not till deeply, and allowed the fields to fallow every other year. Vineyards were carefully hoed and equally well weeded. Any intrusive growth would usurp precious moisture.

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